Performance of sandwich-structured biohybrid film for making sweat-responsive wearables.
(A) Shape transformation of a flat sandwich-structured biohybrid film when exposed to moisture. (B and C) Stress simulation (B) and experimental bending behavior (C) of a ventilating flap at the open stage when exposed to skin with high humidity. (D) Garment design principle considering both the amount of sweat and body temperature gradient during exercise (note S4). (E) Design of a female garment prototype based on heat maps (left, unit size) and sweat maps (right, percentage of opened area) of the back (note S5). (F and G) Images of garment prototype before exercise with flat ventilation flaps (F) and after exercise with curved ventilation flaps (G). (H and I) Temperature (H) or RH (I) profiles of stagnant air layer near volunteer skin when she wears the female garment with either functional flaps (blue) or nonfunctional flaps (orange). (J to L) The image of the shoe under transmitted light (J) and the flap on the sole at low (K) or high humidity (L). (M to O) The image of the shoe under fluorescence light (M) and the flap on the sole at low (N) or high humidity (O).